When the English Armada was sent off by Spain in 1588 to defeat the English fleet and take back England, the Spanish were confident and certain of victory. But fate had other plans. The Spanish fleet was defeated by a combination of bad weather, unexpected tactical decisions, and the skill of English sailors.
A year later, the Spanish decided to send out another fleet to retaliate and try again to conquer England. This time, however, the English Armada was better prepared and prepared a symmetrical response that defeated the Spanish in a similar manner.
In this article, we will look more closely at the events of the English Armada of 1589 and examine how the English fleet was able to use its strengths to defeat the Spanish again through symmetry and learning from the past. Here we will look at the tactical decisions, weather, and skills of the English sailors to understand how a seemingly hopeless situation was turned into an impressive victory.
To understand the background of the English Armada of 1589, it is necessary to know some historical events. In the 16. Century, there was constant conflict between England and Spain, largely due to religion. During England under the reign of Elizabeth I. became more and more Protestant, Spain remained strictly Catholic. The Spanish King Philip II. had already made two attempts to conquer England, but both times its fleets had been defeated by the English admiral Sir Francis Drake.
In 1588, Philip II. Another attempt to invade England. A large Spanish armada of 130 ships sailed from Lisbon bound for England. But the English were well prepared and had a fleet of 200 ships ready to fight off the Spanish. In an epic naval battle off the coast of England, the English fleet succeeded in defeating the Spanish Armada and destroying most of the Spanish ships.
However, the conflict between England and Spain remained. Both countries continued to rearm and there were more disputes at sea. In 1589, Elizabeth I decided. for a symmetrical response to the Spanish attack of 1588 and dispatched an English Armada to Spain. The result was similar to the previous year: the English Armada suffered heavy losses and had to retreat without having achieved its objective.