Treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular system often requires interventional catheter therapy. Vascular interventional devices are medical instruments used in performing these types of procedures. They enable endovascular treatment of vascular disorders and provide numerous options for restoring blood flow.
Several types of interventional devices are used in clinical practice to perform a targeted intervention. These include balloon catheters, stents, atheromectomy devices and thrombectomy devices. These tools offer clinicians the ability to customize therapy to achieve the best possible results.
This article introduces the main vascular interventional devices and explains how they are used in the treatment of vascular disorders. We look at how they work, their advantages and disadvantages, and discuss when they are best used. Allowing patients and clinicians to make informed decisions and choose the optimal treatment option.
Introduction to Common Vascular Interventional Devices
A catheter is a commonly used instrument in vascular interventions. A catheter is a thin tube inserted into a vein or artery to monitor blood flow or provide treatment. Catheters are available in different sizes and lengths and are selected according to the location of the intervention. They can be made of different materials, such as plastic, rubber or metal.
- Balloon Catheter: This is a catheter that has an inflatable balloon at the tip. It is used to open blocked arteries by inflating the balloon to provide adequate blood flow. Once this is achieved, the balloon is deflated and removed again.
- Stent catheter: This is a catheter that contains a stent, a metal or plastic device used to keep narrowed vessels open and improve blood flow. The stent is placed through the catheter and, once in place, is released to stay in place.
Other common types of catheters that may be used in vascular interventions include the curettage and aspiration catheter, the injection catheter, and the embolization catheter. Each has a specific application and is selected by a specialist who evaluates the requirements of the intervention. It is important to understand which catheter will be used in a vascular intervention, as this may affect the effectiveness of the treatment.
Vascular intervention: a brief introduction of common devices
One of the most common procedures in vascular intervention is the use of a stent. Stents are small, tube-shaped devices made of metal or plastic that are inserted into narrowed or blocked blood vessels. They can be used to dilate the narrowed blood vessel and restore blood flow.
Another common device used in vascular intervention is the balloon catheter. This special catheter is pushed through the narrowed or blocked blood vessel and then inflated to widen the narrowed vessel and restore blood flow. In some cases, balloon catheters and stents are used together to achieve optimal results.
- Other procedures in vascular intervention include:
- Thrombectomy, in which a catheter is used to remove blood clots
- Atherectomy, in which plaques in the blood vessel are scraped off
- Embolysis, which uses a catheter to occlude the blood vessel and stop bleeding
The device or procedure used in vascular intervention always depends on the individual patient’s situation. The treating physician will always select the best option for the patient.
The use of atherectomy devices in vascular interventions
Atherectomy is a minimally invasive procedure used to remove plaque buildup in the arteries that can interfere with blood flow. Special atherectomy devices are used, which can have a wide variety of technical designs.
Common devices include rotary atherectomy systems, which use rotating cutter heads to remove plaque, and laser atherectomy systems, which use a laser beam. Another procedure is direct plaque removal using a catheter whose tip is equipped with a cutting tool.
Choosing the most appropriate atherectomy device depends on several factors, such as the type and location of plaque deposits and the patient’s individual anatomical conditions. In any case, a careful preliminary examination by the attending physician is essential to select the appropriate procedure and device.
- Diameter of the atherosclerosis plaque
- Atheroma plaque consistency
- Location of atherosclerosis plaque and treatment threshold
- Navigation requirements
- Clinical experience of the operator
Overall, atherectomy can be considered a gentle and effective procedure for treating vascular disease. However, each case should be considered individually to select the most appropriate procedure and device and minimize potential risks.
Embolization – An effective vascular intervention method
Embolization is a minimally invasive vascular intervention method that is becoming increasingly common in medical practice. Embolization particles are inserted into the bloodstream to specifically block blood flow and reduce blood supply to a specific tissue. This procedure is commonly used for tumors, vascular malformations, hemorrhages, and other vascular abnormalities.
Embolization particles can be made of various materials, such as polymers, microspheres, gelatin, or particles of PVA. The choice of particles depends on the size of the target vessels to be embolized. Embolization particles of smaller size are more suitable for small vessels, while larger particles are used for larger arteries and veins.
The embolization procedure is generally very safe and is performed by trained medical professionals. Potential risks and side effects such as infection, bleeding, or stroke are rare but occasionally occur. A special catheter system is needed to perform the procedure, which is usually inserted through a puncture of the femoral artery. The catheter is then advanced into the target artery or vein under X-ray guidance.
- Advantages of embolization:
- Minimally invasive procedure
- Effective blood flow blockade for the treatment of tumors and anomalies
- Low complication rate
Apart from embolization, there are other vascular intervention methods that may be used depending on the indication. These include, for example, angioplasty procedures or endovascular closure techniques. Nevertheless, due to its high effectiveness and low complication rate, embolization is a widely used and proven method for the treatment of vascular anomalies.
Vascular Interventional Devices: Thrombectomy Devices
Among common vascular interventional devices, thrombectomy devices are also used. These devices are used to remove blood clots (thrombi) from blood vessels.
The technique of thrombectomy has made considerable progress in recent years, thanks to the development of new devices and materials. Today, it is possible to remove thrombi in blood vessels faster and more effectively than ever before.
Thrombectomy devices are usually inserted into the affected blood vessel using a catheter. The device is then carefully advanced to the thrombus and inserted into the thrombus. Twisting or suction motions are used to remove the thrombus from the blood vessel.
Thrombectomy devices can prevent or alleviate severe consequences of vascular occlusion. Thrombectomy devices can be lifesaving, especially for strokes caused by blood clots in the brain.
- Benefits of thrombectomy devices:
- Effective removal of thrombi from blood vessels
- Advanced technology enables fast and accurate removal of thrombi
- Can prevent or alleviate serious consequences of vascular occlusion
- Life-saving for strokes caused by blood clots